PNRP 35(1) – 2016 r.


Postglacial history of Bia這wie瘸 Forest –
– vegetation, climate and human activity


Pollen analysis of three profiles collected on peat-bogs in Bia這wie瘸 Forest is a base for reconstruction of vegetation history. The data cover the period of the final part of the Late Glacial and the Holocene. The climatic fluctuations had an important impact on the local hydrology. Drops in the water level, especially around 9100 - 8900, 8300, 7000 - 5400 and 2000 years BC and around AD 1000 and 2000, resulted in discontinuity in the sediment profiles. The most important features of the vegetation history are the high proportions of Corylus and low proportions of Quercus in the mid-Holocene, formation of Carpinus-Quercus forest since about 1800 BC and the late Picea abies population expansion at around AD 500. The pollen diagrams show the first traces of human activity in the levels dated to the late Neolithic or the early Bronze Age, then at the turn of the Bronze/Iron Ages, the Roman Iron Age, Middle Ages and the modern times. All settlement phases were characterized by relatively weak agricultural activity (cultivation). Most probably, the main economic impact onto the vegetation resulted from different forest industries. The best record of the human/environment relationships has been obtained for the last about four hundred years.


Share of pioneer tree species
in a hundred-year old clear-cut lime-hornbeam-oak stands
in the Bia這wie瘸 National Park


Pioneer tree species (aspen, birches) play an important biocenotic role in forests of northern Europe, Asia and N America. They quickly increase in numbers after the occurrence of natural disturbances or after cutting stands as well. In any forests, including Poland, such stands are usually rebuilt (naturalized) by removing pioneer trees and planting other species. One of the exceptions is the Bia這wie瘸 Forest, where still are many fragments of stands where trees have never been cut down or planted. Here, we present data on pioneer tree species in ca 100 years old deciduous tree stands, in the Bia這wie瘸 National Park.
The aim of this study was to investigate what now is a share of these species of trees in alive stand and to what extent the presence of these pioneering, short-living species affects the amount of dead wood.
We measured tree stand within 16 ha samples plots, each in size of 0.25 located in 100 hundred years old tree stands of the Bia這wie瘸 National Park, Poland. Tree species, tree condition and diameter at the breast height of all trees were measured.
In the case of live trees the highest basal area had hornbeam and lime (26.1 and 21.1%, respectively). Birch and aspen had a smaller share (16.3 and 11.6%, respectively).
Among the dead trees aspen and hornbeam had the largest share (respectively 31.4% and 29.1%), which together accounted for more than half of dead trees. Birches have a much smaller share and were in fourth place (8.1% dead trees). This probably stems from the fact that they live longer than aspen. Carpinus betulus and Tilia cordata were the most common live tree species (26.1 and 21.1%, respectively) while Betula spp. and Populus tremula dominated among snags (16.3 and 11.6%, respectively).
We suggest not to rebuild stands (unless there are not introduced alien species of trees) in protected forest areas, but allow them to freely develop. Naturally dying trees of species such as aspen and birch will create substantial amount of dead wood. It is now well known fact that, removal of dead wood and dead trees is contributing to loss of biological diversity.


Saproxylic springtails (Collembola
of the Karkonosze National Park


Faunistic studies on saproxylic Collembola of the Karkonosze National Park (Sudety Mts, SW Poland) revealed the occurrence of 81 species, including 8 saproxylobiontic (Xenylla corticalis, Galanura agnieskae, Hymenaphorura polonica, Folsomia inoculata, Desoria nivea, Proisotoma clavipila, P. minima, Vertagopus cinereus), 11 saproxylophilous (Mesogastrura ojcoviensis, Friesea claviseta, Pseudachorutes corticicolus, P. parvulus, Pseudachorutella asigillata, Deutonura conjuncta, Neanura muscorum, N. parva, Thaumanura carolii, Micraphorura absoloni, Entomobrya corticalis), 10 xerophilous species living in mosses and lichens growing on dead and live trees (Xenylla boerneri, X. schillei, Anurophorus laricis, Pseudisotoma sensibilis, Tetracanthella fjellbergi, Vertagopus westerlundi, Entomobrya nivalis, Willowsia nigromaculata, Sminthurinus alpinus, S. gisini) and 52 hemiedaphic or euedaphic species. Among strictly saproxylic species, 6 live under bark (Xenylla corticalis, Friesea claviseta, Desoria nivea, Proisotoma clavipila, Vertagopus cinereus, Entomobrya corticalis), 2 (Galanura agnieskae, Hymenaphorura polonica) in rotten wood and 10 (Pseudachorutes corticicolus, P. parvulus, Pseudachorutella asigillata, Deutonura conjunta, Neanura muscorum, N. parva, Thaumanura carolii, Micraphorura absoloni, Folsomia inoculata, Proisotoma minima) among both habitats. The composition of saproxylobiontic and saproxylopilous species fauna seems to be optimal at the global scale, however locally varies widely depending on the degree of habitat alteration. The richest and the most diverse fauna lives in semi-natural beech-and oak-hornbeam forests growing in enclaves: Chojnik, Wodospad Szklarki and near Jagni徠ków village. Most of the saproxylobiontic species appeared to be rare in the Karkonosze National Park and consequently were recognized as good bioindicators of natural forest ecosystems.


Herpetofauna of the Cisów nature reserve


Forest nature reserve "Cisów im. prof. Zygmunta Czubi雟kiego" is located in the central part of the 安i皻okrzyskie province (Kielce county, municipality Daleszyce). The reserve covers 40.58 hectares and includes only forests. These are mainly swamp, moist coniferous, fresh mixed coniferous, fresh mixed, typical alder and alder-ash forests. Its terrain is highly varied, with numerous trough-shaped valleys and steep mountains slopes cut through by deep tectonic ravines. An unnamed stream, originating in the northern part of the reserve, flows mainly in its eastern part. It is a tributary of a larger stream - ㄆkawka, also with its spring in the reserve. The only water bodies are small backwaters and oxbow lakes of two rivers. The study was conducted in 2015 - 2016. The aim was to determine the incidence, distribution and phenology of amphibians and reptiles, as well as the threats and proposed protective measures.
The Cisów reserve showed a number of the following species of amphibians: smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus LAUR., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis LAUR., common frog Rana temporaria L. and moor frog Rana arvalis NILSS. Reptiles were represented by sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara JACQUIN, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L. and common European adder Vipera berus L. Phenological studies concerned two species of amphibians: the common toad and common frog.
The reserve is exposed to few threats thanks to the its location, mostly surrounded by woods. The only exception is the southern part, adjacent to the land of the Cisów village. The local residents periodically collect mushrooms and forest fruit in the reserve, but also litter the reserve and sometimes kill the representatives of herpetofauna, especially snakes and blindworms.




A new locality of the giant bellflower Campanula latifolia L. (Campanulaceae)
in the Romincka Forest Landscape Park


Campanula latifolia is a vascular plant species under a partial protection in Poland and is treated as a vulnerable one. In July 2015, a new locality of this regionally rare species was found in Jurkiszki in the Romincka Forest Landscape Park, NE Poland (coordinates: N54°18,544'/E22°22,086'; the ATPOL cartogram unit: FA8423, square of 2.5 km side). The plant grows on the edge of riparian forest and its population consists of 10 individual clumps dispersed over a few meters along the bank of the Jarka River. The habitat in which C. latifolia occurs is occupied mostly by plant species characteristic of nitrophilous synanthropic herb-rich communities of shaded riparian fringes from the class Galio-Urticetea. Floristic composition of vegetation is presented by phytosociological relevé.