PNRP 38(3-4) – 2019 r.

The dynamics of the occurrence
of alien species on permanent research plots
in the Kampinos National Park


Non-native species of vascular plants pose an increasing threat to plant communities. One of the most important goals of the national parks is to preserve and restore biodiversity. This requires monitoring, and often the active elimination, of alien species from the environment. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in the frequency of non-indigenous vascular plant species in the Kampinos National Park (central Poland) based on 52 permanent plots established in its main plant communities. The fieldwork was conducted in the vegetation periods of 2001, 2007, 2012 and 2018. There were eight naturalized alien species and nine naturalized invasive alien species recorded within the permanent plots. Plots located within the dune-belt areas were characterized by lower frequencies of alien species. The frequencies of naturalized alien species remained on a comparatively low level during the monitoring period. The species belonging to this group were gaining and losing stands. The frequency of naturalized invasive alien species was low during 2001-2012, but nearly tripled in 2018. The spread of Padus serotina, Quercus rubra and Solidago gigantea was observed. The new alien species - Erechtites hieraciifolia, appeared in 2018. In spite of the fact, that the total frequency of alien species per permanent plot nearly doubled between 2012 and 2018, it is still relatively low (0.44 species per plot). Due to its close proximity to Warsaw, urban pressure is increasing which results in the progressive development of housing estates on the border of the Kampinos National Park and within its boundaries. This is associated with increasing tourist penetration. This probably will result in the further spread of alien species within the plant communities.


Dragonflies (Odonata)
of the nature reserve "Lake Obradowskie" (West Polesie)


The nature reserve "Lake Obradowskie" near Parczew in the Lublin Region (Central-Eastern Poland) lies in a drainage depression and encompasses: a slightly hypertrophic polyhumic lake, high and transitional peat bogs surrounding the lake and the canal connected to the lake. In 2019, 27 dragonfly species were found here. The fauna of the lake was the qualitatively richest (22 spp.). An assemblage found in the lake was typical of a small eutrophic lake, but poorer in species: lacking species preferring transparent water and the elodeid zone, and with a very poor representation of the fauna typical of the nymphaeid zone. This correlated with very poor development of tall vegetation, constant bloom of cyanobacteria and low oxygen content in the water. In the canal 16 spp. occurred; this was a poorer variant of the lake's fauna with the addition of the habitat disturbance indicator, Libellula depressa, which resulted from the almost complete drying out of the canal in the summer. 6-11 species were found on three studied open peat bogs, but they were almost exclusively foraging individuals from other habitats, and regular reproductive behaviour was observed only in Somatochlora flavomaculata.
The studied nature reserve proved to be of little importance for the protection of dragonflies. (1) Its fauna was not too rich in species, the small size of the populations of most species was also unfavourable, which may reduce their stability. (2) Assemblages of dragonflies in individual habitats were of little value, common eurytopes dominated. The only recorded tyrphophile is S. flavomaculata. Stenotopes of other habitats only flew over the study area. (3) Only one of 16 species of dragonflies protected in Poland (Sympecma paedisca) was found, it was rare and showed no reproductive behaviour. (4) No species endangered in Poland and in the Lublin Province were found. The state of the fauna described above results from the high productivity of the lake and its dominance by algae but not macrophytes. However, this productivity is probably natural: in the geological base of West Polesie, limestone rocks dominate, which makes the pH of the lake waters high and there are good conditions for the development of bacteria that decompose organic matter. An important factor is also the lack of water bodies in the peat bogs, which means that dragonflies do not develop on them (and probably valuable assemblages would be formed here, dominated by tyrphobionts and tyrphophiles), nor do they colonize lakes from them. Data from the nature reserve "Lake Obradowskie" indicates in particular that such colonization is crucial for the presence in the fertile lake of species associated with peat bogs.
The authors suggest the protection of dragonflies in the studied reserve by manually digging small peat excavations in the peat bogs around the lake. This would create valuable habitats for hydrobionts associated with high and transitional peat bog waters without significantly interfering with water relationships. Such activities may soon be a sine qua non condition for the protection of this organisms in the case of rising air temperatures and drying out of peatlands.


Comments on the occurrence, biology and phenology
of Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)
on Podkarpacie and Małopolska Region (SE Poland) from the period 2015-2019


The main purpose of the research, the results of which are presented in this paper, was to determine the current distribution of the colony of Iphiclides podalirius (Linnaeus, 1758) in south-eastern Poland. The research conducted in 2015-2019 was a continuation of the earlier phase of research, which was carried out in 2010-2014. Data was collected during field research conducted by observers in the 15 mesoregions of Podkarpacie and Małopolska: Beskid Niski, Bieszczady Zachodnie, Kotlina Jasielsko-Krośnieńska, Pogórze Strzyżowskie, Pogórze Jasielskie, Pogórze Bukowskie, Pogórze Przemyskie, Pogórze Dynowskie, Góry Sanocko-Turczańskie, Podgórze Rzeszowskie, Płaskowyż Tarnogrodzki, Pogórze Ciężkowickie, Pradolina Podkarpacka, Dolina Dolnego Sanu and Pieniny, which are part of five macroregions: Obniżenie Orawsko-Podhalańskie, Pogórze Środkowobeskidzkie, Beskidy Środkowe, Beskidy Lesiste and Kotlina Sandomierska. A total of 352 records (240 imago observations and 112 preimaginal forms) were presented from 142 positions located within 72 (including 28 new) UTM squares. In three mesoregions: Pogórze Ciężkowickie, Pradolina Podkarpacka and Płaskowyż Tarnogrodzki, the species was detected for the first time. The time distribution of the appearance of adult forms in south-eastern Poland was updated in relation to the observations from 2010-2014. For the first time in Poland, the appearance of the third incomplete generation I. podalirius in the first and second decade of September was observed. The dietary preferences of I. podalirius caterpillars were analysed in detail, and the list of food plants of the species used in south-eastern Poland was updated. Factors conducive to the expansion of I. podalirius in this area were discussed, of which the climatic factor and the traditional agricultural model persisting here were considered the most important, which ensures the preservation of the mosaic character of the habitats and their biodiversity.


The impact of wind and bark beetle outbreaks and protective measures
on the vegetation of spruce forests in the Tatra National Park


Global climate changes and aging of tree stands make spruce forests in Tatra susceptible to spontaneous disturbances caused by wind and bark beetles. These phenomena are followed by intensive protective measures, mainly removing fallen and infested trees. The consequence of these disturbances are changes in the age structure of stands. Less obvious and less known are the changes in the vegetation. The investigations were carried out in 2018 on a regular grid of 665 plots established in the forest areas of the Tatra National Park. From this pool, 305 phytosociological reléves were selected, representing communities of the order Piceetalia excelsae. On the basis of the analysis of aerial photos and satellite imagery made in the years 1999-2017 these plots were divided into undisturbed, subjected to spontaneous disturbances and subjected to protective measures (salvage logging). NMDS analysis showed that undisturbed spruce forest communities are most dispersed in the multidimensional space, which reflects their large diversity. The species that differentiates between spruce forests that were not disturbed and disturbed communities, distinguished by SIMPER analysis, is Picea abies, whose average coverage in disturbed communities is 31%, and in undisturbed communities - 57.5%. Vaccinium myrtillus is the second differentiating species; (the average coverage in disturbed communities is 36.5% and is clearly higher than in undisturbed (26.2%). Further species are: Rubus idaeus (10.1% versus 2.9% in undisturbed), Athyrium distentifolium (9.1 versus 3.2%) and Sorbus aucuparia (10.4 versus 5.4%). Inversely, Calamagrostis arundinacea is more frequent in undisturbed communities (6.4%) than in disturbed (4.3%). The opposite is the case with Calamagrostis villosa, its coverage in disturbed spruce (6.9%) is almost twice as high as in undisturbed spruce (3.4%). The same is true for Deschampsia flexuosa (8.1% in disturbed versus 3.7 in undisturbed). Homogyne alpina (9.2 in the disturbed and 5.0% in the undisturbed) and Oxalis acetosella (coverage in the disturbed group 15%, compared to 10.4% in the undisturbed) also shows a very similar tendency. Areas subjected to salvage logging are characterized by relatively smaller number of species, and patches containing more than 20 species were recorded in this group of surfaces only sporadically. Timber cutting following spontaneous disturbances largely lead to the homogenization of environmental conditions and contribute to the reduction of the number of species found in these places. In turn, in a group of undisturbed forests and forests subject to spontaneous disturbance, patches rich in species constitute a significant part of the collection.




First records of the lesser horseshoe bat Rhinolophus hipposideros (Bechstein, 1800)
in the Stołowe Mountains National Park


The lesser horseshoe bat, Rhinolophus hipposideros, is one of the rarest bats living in Poland, and their range is limited mostly to southern regions from the Carpathian mountains through the Kraków-Częstochowa uplands to the Sudeten. Most of the current records of the lesser horseshoe bats in the Sudetes are localized in Eastern Sudetes, with only a few localities in their central part. The records presented in this work are the first confirmed observations of the lesser horseshoe bat in the Stołowe Mountains National Park. The presence of species was recorded in autumn of 2018 (September to early November), on three out of eighteen stationary positions distributed in SMNP, using the stationary ultrasound detector, Pettersson D500X. New records of species are located in the south-eastern, southern and south-western parts of SMNP, a few kilometres from the known breeding colonies and other summer shelters of the lesser horseshoe bat located on the eastern Stołowe Mountains (outside the national park).




Exhibition of the Nature and Forest Museum
of the Białowieża National Park between 1972-1999


In the article the activity of the Nature and Forest Museum of the Białowieża National Park, which operated between the 27th of June 1972 and 21st of February 1999, are presented. It was the fourth institution[ED1]  of this kind in the Białowieża Forest. The concept and scripts of the individual parts of the exhibition were developed by the team of 11 scientists carrying out research in the Białowieża Forest and representing various disciplines. Most of presented specimens originated from the exhibition open to the public in 1937-1971. The exhibition was supplemented with new specimens or specimens borrowed from other museums. Among almost 7,000 specimens about 2,000 were available to the public. The exhibition was located in the two-storey building and covered an area of 1,200 m². It consisted of six main departments presenting all the issues related to the Białowieża Forest in a comprehensive way. Storage facilities were modest and located in the basement of the building. The building itself could not meet the technical requirements of a museum and its numerous disadvantages hampered its proper functioning. In addition to the basic activity (making the collection available to the public, organizing different types of exhibitions related to the nature and nature protection, tourism, culture and art), the museum participated in the collection of phytophenological data, organized training for nature guides, managed the scientific library of the Park and bibliographical catalogue of publications concerning the Białowieża Forest. It also lent the specimens for temporary exhibitions organized by other institutions, including foreign ones. In the museum movies, reportages and television programs were made. In 1978 the museum was awarded the Jan Krzysztof Kluk Medal. The curators of the museum were Dr Eng. Czesław Okołów, BSC Janusz Hejduk, BSC Piotr Bartyzel and BSC Eng. Bogdan Jaroszewicz. During the entire period the museum was visited by 2,167,658 people, including 136,366 foreigners.