PNRP 40(1)


The Aculeata (Hymenoptera)
of the Bolimów Landscape Park: current state of knowledge


38 species of Aculeata (Chrysididae – 1, Sapygidae – 1, Vespidae – 3, Crabronidae – 33) new to the Bolimów Landscape Park (near ŁódĽ, Poland) are described, as are new locations for 95 species from this group. On the basis of the published literature and unpublished materials, a total of 334 aculeate species have been recorded in this Landscape Park, 30.2% of all such insects recorded in Poland. The better-known groups include the families of stinging wasps (Vespidae, Pompilidae and Crabronidae), and also Apiformes.
62 (18.5%) of the aculeate population in the park are endangered, most of them in the families Chrysididae (12 species) and Crabronidae (14). Three of these threatened species listed in the “Polish Red Book of Animals. Invertebrates” are deserving of special attention: Scolia hirta, Tachysphex fulvitarsis and Amegilla quadrifasciata. Other species with a high threat category in Poland include Sphecodes marginatus (EX), Chrysis sexdentata (CR) and Arachnospila wesmaeli (EN).
12 species of Aculeata recorded in the Bolimów Landscape Park receive partial protection: Formica polyctena, Anthophora plumipes, Bombus hortorum, B. hypnorum, B. lapidarius, B. lucorum, B. pascuorum, B. pratorum, B. ruderarius, B. subterraneus, B. sylvarum and B. terrestris.


Invertebrate fauna in the freshwater ecosystems
of the Bembeńskie Nature Reserve (Orawa, Southern Poland)


Streams flowing from the southern slopes of the Babia Góra massif are tributaries of the Czarna Orawa River and are located in the Danube River Basin, the Black Sea catchment. In this area, which is the Polish part of Orawa, the Bembeńskie Nature Reserve was established (Fig. 1). This Reserve was created to protect the swamp spruce, the black and grey alder, and the subalpine herbaceous species, as well as protecting the Bębeński stream, which flows through the Reserve. The aim of the research was to determine the composition of aquatic invertebrate fauna in the Bembeńskie Nature Reserve.
Samples were collected four times in 2003/2004 in the Bębeński stream (sites 1 and 2), in an unnamed intermitted stream (site 3) and in a helocrene spring (site 4). In total, one hundred taxa were found in those aquatic ecosystems (Table 1). A number of species found in the waters of the Bembeńskie Nature Reserve are on the “The Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland”. The presence of the noble crayfish Astacus astacus (VU Vulnerable) in the Bębeński stream is particularly noteworthy.
In the waters of the Reserve three communities of invertebrates were distinguished (Table 2). In the Bębiński stream Chironomidae, mainly Microtendipes sp. and Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera larvae were the dominant group. The intermittent stream was still dominated by Chironomidae, mainly Parametriocnemus stylatus larvae and by juvenile stages of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, and amphibious larvae of Limoniidae. The helocrene spring was dominated by Mollusca of the genus Pisidium, Ostracoda, Oligochaeta - Lumbriculus variegatus and Ephemeroptera - Habroleptoides confuse.
The composition of invertebrate fauna in the water ecosystems of the Bembeńskie Nature Reserve is much poorer than in Babia Góra National Park (Table 3). It results from the fact that research in the Bembeńskie Nature Reserve was conducted in a restricted study area, based on the larval stages, which made an accurate identification of several taxa impossible. However, a number of species found in the Bębeński stream have not been found either in the waters of Babia Góra National Park or the Orawa River and its tributaries. A comparison between the invertebrate communities in the Bębeński stream and other Carpathian streams points to a clear difference. Typical fast-flowing mountain streams with stony bottoms are dominated by current-loving taxa (mayflies: Rhithrogena, Baetis gr. alpinus, caddisflies: Rhyacophila, Drusus, Chironomidae midges: Orthocladius (Euorthocladius) gr. rivicola, Eukiefferiella minor), which are sporadic or not found in the Bębeński stream. The stream, however, is dominated by forms characteristic of slow-flowing lowland or submontane waters (Chironomidae - Microtendipes, Polypedilum, mayfly - Habrophlebia lauta, caddisfly - Tinodes waeneri).
In the Bębeński stream, invertebrate fauna is characteristic of clean water. There are no organisms typical of polluted water. The presence of the noble crayfish in this stream indicates water of a high quality.


Herpetofauna of the Bobrza Valley


The observations were carried out in 2019-2020 in the area of the Site of Community Importance Bobrza Valley. The SCI Bobrza Valley was established in the central part of the ¦więtokrzyskie Province to protect the central part of the Bobrza river valley. The terrain is marshy in places because the Bobrza and its tributaries are accompanied by numerous bends, oxbow lakes, backwaters and wetlands with rushes, reeds and swamps.
The observations covered different biotopes, including meadows, forests and ponds. The research included an inventory of herpetofauna and the identification of threats, along with determining the necessary protection measures. As a result, 9 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles were found in 11 research locations. The following species were found: smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris L., common toad Bufo bufo L., European green toad Bufotes viridis Laur., European tree frog Hyla arborea L., edible frog Pelophylax esculentus L., pool frog Pelophylax lessonae Cam., marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus Pall., moor frog Rana arvalis Nilss., common frog Rana temporaria L., sand lizard Lacerta agilis L., viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara Jacquin, slow worm Anguis fragilis L., grass snake Natrix natrix L., and common European adder Vipera berus L. (Fig. 1 and 2, Table 1). The main threats to amphibians and reptiles in this area are drying out of water bodies, water pollution, mowing of meadows, significant littering, fire setting and eutrophication.


Wintering of birds in the mixed forests
of the ¦więtokrzyski National Park


At the turn of 2019/2020 (XII-II) wintering bird communities were counted on the six line transects in the forests of ¦więtokrzyski National Park. There were in total 32 species noted. The average density amounted 29.5 ind./km including 20-23 species in the Fir forests (avg. 24.4-48.7 ind./km) and 19-20 species in the Beech forests (avg. 17.1-17.3 ind./km). In the forests of ¦więtokrzyski National Park the following dominated: Goldcrest Regulus regulus (25.8%, avg. 7.5 ind./km, ma. 27.5 ind./km), Coal Tit Periparus ater (20.5%, avg. 6.0 ind./km, max. 20.4 ind./km), Great Tit Parus major (11.8%, avg. 3.4 ind./km, max. 12.1 ind./km), Eurasian Siskin Spinus spinus (11.7%, avg. 3.4 ind./km, max. 21.7 ind./km) and Nuthatch Sitta europaea (5.6%, avg. 1.6 ind./km, max. 5.8 ind./km). Wintering bird communities on the ¦PN area indicated the highest species diversity than otherwise known on the Małopolska Upland. On the other hand, the quantitative data were approximated to results from other natural complex of forests in the region. The density of White-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos and Wren Troglodytes troglodytes were high and both of them were strongly connected with natural forest habitats owing to passive protection.



New location of Ophioglossum vulgatum L.
in Bukowskie Foothills (Western Carpathians)


Ophioglossum vulgatum is a rare species threatened with extinction in Poland. It is associated with Molinion caeruleae meadows, the surface area of which is currently decreasing. This is related to the abandonment of traditional farming methods and meadows, which results in the initiation of secondary succession. The fern is under strict protection. Additionally, it is included in the Polish red list of ferns and flowering plants with the VU category (vulnerable species).
In 2020, a new location of Ophioglossum vulgatum was discovered in the Bukowskie Foothills. We found 40 plants with 15 producing spores in the Sanoczek River valley in Prusiek village (Sanok commune). The ferns occupied a small (ca. 5-m2) area on a floodplain located at the bottom of a flat valley. It grew in a meadow community with a total area of ca. 0.5 ha. The phytosociological relevé showed the presence of 45 vascular plant species, including 3 protected species (Ophioglossum vulgatum, Colchicum autumnale, Listera ovata). Due to the dominance of species characteristic of fresh meadows (Arrhenatherum elatius, Geranium pratense, Dactylis glomerata, Heracleum sphondylium), the community was classified into the association Arrhenatheretum elatioris. The species associated with wet meadows and floodplain grasslands also had a significant share in the structure of the phytocoenosis. Its presence is associated with moist soils and periodic flooding.
The new location is in a good condition, but its abandonment is a threat to the community. This is evidenced by the abundant growth of scrub and ruderal species. The next stage of secondary succession will consist of the encroachment of shrub and forest species from the nearby riparian forest. Therefore, the survival of this small population will depend on active protection measures than have to be taken.


Xiphydriid wood-wasps (Xiphydriidae)
of the Kampinos National Park (Hymenoptera, Symphyta)


Xyphydriidae is a small family of wood-wasps that develop in the wood of deciduous trees. Five species have been reported in Poland. In 2015-2019 sawflies were collected in Kampinos National Park (KNP). The collectors used IBL-5 barrier-type traps and Moericke traps. Three species of Xiphydriidae: Xiphydria camelus (L.), X. longicollis (Geoffr.) and X. prolongata (Geoffr.) were collected in the territory of the KNP.




He devoted his life to the Białowieża bisons
On the 40th anniversary of the death of Piotr Pilucik, the guard-breeder

Reintroduction and conservation of beavers in the Second Polish Republic
in the light of nature and hunting journals


The article documents the conservation and introduction of beavers in Poland in the interwar period based on the analysis of nature and hunting journals. The historic aspect of the species’ protection connected with past protection laws of Poland and Lithuania is discussed, as well as the international context of conservation and reintroduction carried out in parallel to similar actions in France, Germany, Scandinavia and the Baltic states. The authors have also analysed the then actions of the inventory and protection of beaver lodges showing a novel approach to law making (protection of habitats, high fines for both catching and attempting to catch animals, compensation for damage and state buyout of areas where beavers caused damage, proposal to prohibit fur trade). A discussion on animals chosen for reintroduction in the light of historical knowledge about beavers in Poland and planned breeding centres are also shown. As a result of the Second World War, Poland lost its eastern lands and all its beaver populations. The enormous effort of Polish naturalists and the administration was virtually forgotten, which was also along the lines of propaganda and censorship of the Polish People’s Republic period.