PNRP 40(4)


100 years ago – beginnings of the Bia這wie瘸 National Park


The article describes the first decade of the creation and functioning of the nature protection in the Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest, the establishment of the Reserve Forest District, later transformed into the National Park in Bia這wie瘸. Attention was paid to the political-economic and organisational context of the actions undertaken.


Herpetofauna of protected areas of Kielce


The observations were carried out in the years 2018-2020 in the of the area of Kielce. It covers the area of 10 965 ha and holds 5 nature reserves: “Karczówka” (26.4 ha), “Biesak-Bia這gon” (13.0 ha), “Kadzielnia” (0.6 ha), “Wietrznia” (17.6 ha) and “奸ichowice” (0.6 ha). The Kielce is located in the central part of the 安i皻okrzyskie Province (Pos這wickie Mt., Dymi雟kie Mt., Zgórskie Mt., Kadzielnia雟kie Mt., and Szydówkowskie Mt.), and western part of the 安i皻okrzyska Primeval Forest. Kielce consists mostly of an urban environment and forests, with a small inclusion of meadows, fields, rock outcrops, surface waters and ponds. The city is distinguished by an exceptional geodiversity. Apart from the geological values, Kielce is characterized by the diversity of natural habitats, flora, mycobiota and fauna. The observations covered different biotopes, including ponds, river valleys, meadows, forests and rock outcrops. The research included an inventory of the herpetofauna and the identification of threats, along with determining the necessary protection measures. As result 13 species of amphibians and 5 species of reptiles were found in 27 research localities. The following species were found: alpine newt Ichthyosaura alpestris, smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris, great crested newt Triturus cristatus, European fire-bellied toad Bombina bombina, common spadefoot toad Pelobates fuscus, common toad Bufo bufo, European green toad Bufotes viridis, European tree frog Hyla arborea, edible frog Pelophylax esculentus, pool frog Pelophylax lessonae, marsh frog Pelophylax ridibundus, moor frog Rana arvalis, common frog Rana temporaria, sand lizard Lacerta agilis, viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara, slow worm Anguis fragilis, grass snake Natrix natrix and common European adder Vipera berus (Fig. 1 and 2, Tab. 1). The main threats to amphibians and reptiles in this area are the drying out of water bodies, water pollution, mowing of meadows, eutrophication, urbanization, human presence, littering, grass fires and car traffic.



New stand of Cladonia stellaris and Cladonio-Pinetum
in the vicinity of υ village in Chojnowski Landscape Park (central Poland)


Cladonia stellaris is a rare terrestrial lichen species, included in the Polish Red List categorised as EN, under strict protection. The Cladonia-Scots pine forest is a vanishing forest community in Poland, including Mazovia, protected as a Natura 2000 habitat. This paper presents a new stand of Cladonia stellaris and Cladonio-Pinetum, located near the village of υ in the Chojnowski Landscape Park (square ED56 of the ATPOL cartogram). This site was found in November 2020 and documented by phytosociological relevé in August 2021. Both the abundance of Cladonia stellaris and the area of Cladonio-Pinetum were low. Threats to the site in question are beech underplanting and progressive ecological succession. Most probably the stand will disappear in the next few years. Both the Cladonia stellaris and Cladonia-Scots pine forest have not been reported in the area of the Chojnowski Landscape Park so far. New species for the Park are also Cladonia cervicornis ssp. verticillata and Cladonia squamosa, as well as Cladonia aruscula ssp. mitis subspecies. All of them were recorded within the phytosociological relevé.


Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. (Ophioglossaceae) –
– a new species for the vascular flora of the Bia這wie瘸 National Park


Botrychium virginianum is extremely rare in Poland and adjacent countries. The species is critically endangered in the country according to the IUCN criteria. In Poland it was noted in only four sites in the Warmia and Masuria province (probably became extinct there as early as the first half of the 20th century) and in one locality in the Puszcza Augustowska Forest (became extinct at the beginning of the 1990s). However, in that region a new location was discovered in 2010. The paper presents the population in Bia這wie瘸 National Park, which has been discovered in 2020. The species grew on the narrow-gauge railway track. In 2020, the population consisted of only a few individuals in very few places. The new location is protected within a national park and does not seem to be directly threatened. However, some accidental events may destroy that small population in the future.


Ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) of lakes Be責any and 好iardwy
in the Masurian Landscape Park


Occurrence of ostracod valves and carapaces was studied in three short (< 42 cm) sediment cores collected from the sublittoral-profundal zones (depth > 19 m) of two postglacial and still moderately eutrophic lakes, Ba責any and 好iardwy, situated within the Masurian Landscape Park in NE Poland. The studied sediment samples yielded 551 ostracod specimens of 15 species (all in Be責any and 12 in 好iardy), out of which six may be considered the autochthonous profundal component of the assemblages: Candona candida, Fabaeformiscandona levanderi, F. protzi, Cytherissa lacustris, Limnocytherina sanctipatricii and Neglecandona neglecta. The remaining species usually inhabit littoral habitats and are found in the profundal zone only sporadically. Their remains may also be subjected to postmortem transport from littoral and deposited at the deep bottom. The ostracod assemblages found in the studied lakes were dominated by Candona candida, Cypria ophtalmica, Fabaeformiscandona protzi and Limnocytherina sanctipatricii, which, according to the generalized model of the deep lacustrine ostracod succession previously established for the Polish lakes on the country scale, correspond well with the trophic status of the studied lakes.




Prof. Jan Jerzy Karpi雟ki and his environment in the light
of the correspondence of Prof. Zofia Pokacka with Piotr Bajko


The article includes quotes from the letters of Prof. Zofia Pokacka, written to the author between 2002 and 2007. They bring a lot of new information about the life and personality of Prof. Jan Jerzy Karpi雟ki and the people around him. They also reveal many unknown facts from the life of the author of these letters, constituting a contribution to her biography.


European bison in the works of authors connected
with the Commission of National Education


The second half of the 18th century was a crucial time for the history of education and science in Poland. Reforms introduced by the Commission of National Education reorganized the school system, led to the publication of several textbooks devoted to subjects such as zoology and botany, and surveyed teachers for information about “natural treasures”. This period is important also in the history of research on European bison, in which the French naturalists played an essential role. G. L. Buffon asked about the species status of European bison and aurochs. J.-M. Daubenton, naturalist, anatomist and the first director of the National Museum of Nature History in Paris was the first researcher who conducted the detailed measurements of European bison and described the species. J.-E. Gilibert was the first naturalist who observed a captive European bison in Grodno. He conducted feeding preference observations, attempted cross-breeding with cattle and described the species’ morphology, and the female bison he received from Stanis豉w August Poniatowski’s forest wardens was drawn by a remarkable Alsatian artist J. H. Müntz. The French science was an important source of inspiration for CNE’s reforms. Authors have analysed the information on the European bison in works of naturalists connected with the Commission of National Education: Krzysztof Kluk, Pawe Czenpi雟ki, Jean-Baptiste Dubois. Information on the European bison was included in the first Polish zoology textbook. J. E. Dubois reported several attempts to cross-breed European bison with cattle. The remaining information was just a compilation of previous historical texts, which is understandable given the character of CNE’s works. This analysis contributes to the history of European bison research and its perception as a “charismatic” species.