PNRP 41(2)


Contribution to the moss flora
of the Tatra National Park (Polish Western Carpathians)


In the years 2019-2021 phytosociological investigations were carried out in the Tatra National Park. As a result, information on 105 species and 2 varieties of mosses was collected. Of these, 1 species, Meesia triquetra, is strictly protected, 42, e.g. Limprichtia cossonii and Sphagnum warnstorfii, are partially protected, and 2, Meesia triquetra and Sphagnum fuscum, are endangered in Poland. The floristic list is arranged in alphabetical order. For each site, geographic coordinates, habitat and altitude are given. Occurrence of the most interesting mosses: Drepanocladus polycarpos, Fissidens dubius var. mucronatus, Sphagnum angustifolium and S. inundatum (new to the flora of this area) and species rarely found here, such as Calliergon cordifolium, Dicranella schreberiana, Meesia triquetra, Sphagnum centrale, S. cuspidatum, S. riparium, S. rubellum and S. teres, are briefly discussed.


Springtails (Collembola) of wetlands
of the Wigry National Park


Faunistic studies on springtails (Collembola) of wetlands of the Wigry National Park (NE Poland) revealed the occurrence of 86 species, including 14 closely associated with these habitats: Podura aquatica, Hypogastrura sahlbergi, Ceratophysella mosquensis, Endonura lusatica, Desoria neglecta, Isotomurus balteatus, Pachyotoma crassicauda, Orchesella sphagneticola, Heterosminthurus insignis, H. novemlineatus, Sminthurides malmgreni, S. parvulus, S. pseudassimilis i S. schoetti. A total of 47 species have been recorded in swampy forests, 45 on lakeshores, 30 on a fen, 27 on sphagnum bogs and 16 on a wet meadow. The largest number of species closely associated with wetland habitats was recorded in sphagnum bogs (9), a fen (7) and swampy forests (7), while significantly smaller on the lakeshores (4) and wet meadows (4). Among the species from this ecological group, the most common in the Wigry National Park were: Podura aquatica, Ceratophysella mosquensis, Isotomurus balteatus, Pachyotoma crassicauda and Sminthurides malmgreni, and the rarest: Endonura lusatica, Desoria neglecta, Sminthurides pseudassimilis and S. schoetti. The springtail assemblages of species closely associated with wetland habitats of the Wigry National Park and the Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest appeared to be significantly similar in terms of richness and species composition. Whereas the relevant assemblage in the more diversified Biebrza National Park turned out to be richer, and its species composition largely different.


The actual state of knowledge of Aculeata (Hymenoptera)
in Spa豉 Landscape Park


The paper provide unpublished data of 135 species of Aculeata, where 33 are new to the Spa豉 Landscape Park area. On the basis of literature data and our own research, a total of 349 species of Aculeata have been recorded in the Park (32.6% of the overall number recorded in Poland). The Pompilidae, Vespidae and Crabronidae are the better researched families, whereas little is as yet known about Formicidae.
In the Park 62 Aculeata species were recorded as endangered in Poland. Most of them are Pompilidae (13), Crabronidae (13) and Chrysididae (11). The Park’s seriously endangered Aculeata include Arachnospila westerlundi (category CR, according to BOGDANOWICZ et al. 2004), Batazonellus lacerticida (EN), Sphecodes marginatus (EX) and Amegilla quadrifasciata (CR). Seven species are classified as vulnerable (VU): Scolia hirta, Cryptocheilus fabricii, Euodynerus dantici, Ectemnius fossorius, Hylaeus rinki, Osmia bidentata and Nomada obscura. Also, there were 11 partially protected species of bumblebees in the Park area.


Bumblebee communities (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus LATR.)
of S這wi雟ki National Park in the years 1989-2021


The investigations were conducted on an area 3 km wide along the Baltic coast from Rowy to Czo逍ino of UTM squares: XA38, XA36 and XA46 (Fig. 1) during the 7 vegetation seasons of 1989-2021. In selected habitats (Tab. 1) bumblebees were observed from June to August in a season. The observations were conducted circa 12 days, use 30 min samples in each type of habitat and optimal weather conditions (9:00-16:00 GMT, temperature 18-22oC).
On typical areas of S這wi雟ki National Park there were 17 species of bumblebees (Bombus LATR.) during the last 30 years (Tab. 2). It was near 50% of all species in Poland. The most frequent were Bombus bohemicus, B. vestalis, B. pascuorum, B. lucorum and B. terrestris. Sporadically noted were B. jonellus and its nest cleptoparasite – B. flavidus. During the investigation grass stands, dry pine forest and areas with synanthropic vegetation were the most attractive habitats. The most quantitative-quality changes of bumblebee communities were observed in grass stands and dry pine forest areas (less 30%). In the remaining habitats significant changes were not observed.




History of the Hunting House in Bia這wie瘸


The Hunting House in Bia這wie瘸, originally called the Svitsky House, was built at the end of the 19th century. It was part of the so-called palace settlement, whose main object was the no longer existing Tsarist palace, built in the years 1889-1894. The two-story building was made of brick in the middle part, while both wings were wooden. It had 18 comfortably furnished rooms with 27 beds. There were also bath rooms, a common dining room and a billiard room. The building was used by the tsar's entourage (hence the Svitsky House), accompanying the tsar during his hunting trips to Bia這wie瘸. In 1896 a water supply line was brought to the house. During World War I, the building housed the German military administration of the Bia這wie瘸 Forest. After Bia這wie瘸 was liberated from occupation, the building was taken over by the administration of the newly created Regional Council of the State Forests in Bia這wie瘸 (later - the Directorate of the State Forests). The Hunting Board was placed in the House. There were also apartments for its officials. In 1932 the Board of the National Park in Bia這wie瘸 was also placed here. Three years later five luxurious guest rooms were put into use in the building. In the interwar period, the House was visited by painter, graphic artist and draughtsman Leon Wyczó趾owski and composer Feliks Nowowiejski. During the subsequent German occupation (1941-1944), the management of the State Hunting Grounds, subject to the Nazi central authorities, was placed in the House. After the liberation of Bia這wie瘸 in July 1944, the Hunting Lodge came under the administration of the Bia這wie瘸 National Park, which was then subordinate to the Forestry Department. The House began to receive all the important guests visiting Bia這wie瘸. Conferences, conventions, and meetings, often international ones, were organized there. The House hosted various prominent people coming to hunt, politicians, diplomats, ambassadors, ministers and deputies. Directors of large companies and institutions, scholars, writers, journalists, filmmakers, actors and painters also chose the secluded hotel to relax. Students of various natural sciences also stayed there. On the night of January 23-24, 1962, a fire broke out in the House, which consumed the entire building. This happened before the scheduled 24 January talks between the leaders of Poland and the USSR - W豉dys豉w Gomu趾a and Nikita Chruszczow. All that was left of the building were the foundations and the burnt walls of the central part. Although a special commission was appointed to investigate the cause of the fire, it never announced the result of the investigation. The case was kept secret. The forestry department decided to build a new hotel on the site of the burnt building, but with a completely different architecture. Its general designer was engineer Jerzy Mokrzy雟ki from the Warsaw team of architects “Tygrysy”. The construction lasted from 1962 to 1964. The new hotel mainly served the representative needs of the forestry department. As before, it hosted the most important guests visiting the forest capital of Poland, organized conferences, seminars, meetings, training and other meetings. The importance of the Hunters' House started to decrease at the beginning of this century. Not renovated and not modernized for many years, the building definitely lost to the competition in the local hotel market, and its representative role was completely marginalized. Since the spring of 2008 the Hunters' House has ceased to serve as a hotel in its current capacity. From time-to-time scientists conducting research in Bia這wie瘸 Forest still used to stay there. Some employees of the Park also lived there. The building was directly subordinate to the management of the Guest Rooms of the Education and Museum Centre at the headquarters of the Bia這wie瘸 National Park. In January 2022 it once again came to life. However, its function changed - the hotel rooms were turned into offices. Some departments of the Park were located there.


European bison and Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest
in Janusz T這makowski’s prints made in Paris


Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest and its most famous inhabitant, the European bison, have both grown to a symbol of pristine nature – and Poland itself – in the course of the 19th and early 20th century. It was therefore understandable that the European bison and the forest were used in a series of prints presenting the most important symbols of Poland, prepared for the French society Amis de Pologne. These prints were created by Janusz Berszten T這makowski (1896-1980), a Polish artist working mainly in France. In the interwar period, T這makowski was one of the most famous authors of bookplates and occasional prints in France. The second time T這makowki portrayed European bison was connected with the article about Bia這wie瘸 Primeval Forest for the Amis de Pologne magazine. T這makowski's illustrations, as well as their author, fully deserve to be remembered by readers.