PNRP 42(2)


Diet composition of the European bison (Bison bonasus) during the growing season in selected
areas of the Bia這wie瘸 Forest


The European bison is the largest terrestrial mammal in Europe. Its natural habitat is extensive deciduous and mixed forests. Large herbivores shape the structure and diversity of ecosystems. In a result, they are crucial for the environment. Knowledge about bison’s diet allows for a better understanding of their ecology, but it may also be used in plant and ecosystem ecology. The research aimed to determine the share of undergrowth, meadow and woody plant species eaten by bison.
The research was conducted in selected areas of Bia這wie瘸 Forest – forest districts: Bia這wie瘸 and Hajnówka with reserves, including open and forest areas. The research was conducted in the spring (April 4 – June 22) and summer (June 23 – September 21) in the years 2020-2021. We set up temporary research plots with dimensions of 5 m × 5 m (25 m2) in places that showed visible signs of bison feeding. In those plots, we registered individuals of plant species eaten by bison. A total of 17 plots were set in the area of reserves. There were 11 plots in spring and 6 plots in summer.
In total, 37 plant species that were eaten by bison, were registered during the research. Its main food during the growing season was herbs, grasses and sedges. The most abundant plant species that were eaten were: Urtica dioica, Rubus idaeus, Aegopodium podagraria and Ranunculus sp.. The percentage of individual plant groups present in the bison's diet changes slightly during the entire growing period, due to the seasonality of the occurrence of plant species in those groups, which also results in a change in the habitats where bison feed. Most of the habitats chosen by European bison for feeding were characterized by high fertility, e.g. forest, which abound in food during the growing season.


The results of preliminary research in years 2018 – 2022 on the butterflies and moths
(Lepidoptera) of Ca這wanie Marsh area in Mazowiecki Landscape


Between 2018 and 2022, research on Lepidoptera in Ca這wanie Marsh area in Mazowiecki Landscape Park was conducted to determine the spatial distribution and diversity of species. The butterflies and moths were observed in 9 permanent sites, located across the whole area. A total number of 326 species (10% of Polish Lepidoptera fauna) from 23 families were recorded and found in the literature. Among them 2 species were new to Masovian province. In the collected material there are 10 species included in the “Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland”, 5 species rarely found in Poland and 264 species which have not been recorded before from Ca這wanie Marsh area. The greatest number of species was recorded on following sites: 圭ie磬a przyrodnicza „13 b這ta stóp” (160 species) and Wydma P瘯atka (153 species). Among all records, 10 species from the „Red List of Threatened Animals in Poland” deserve special attention: Heteropterus morpheus, Iphiclides podalirius, Papilio machaon, Lycaena dispar, Lycaena helle, Phengaris alcon, Phengaris teleius, Apatura ilia, Coenonympha tullia, Spatalia argentina.
Species rarely recorded on a national scale, not covered by any form of protection, include: Tortricidae – Aethes triangulana; Geometridae - Cyclophora pendularia, Idaea ochrata, Anticollix sparsata; Noctuidae - Xylomoia graminea.


The proposed „Ciesacin” nature reserve as a refuge of the Marsh fritillary
(Euphydryas aurinia) (ROTTEMBURG, 1775) (Lepidoptera).


Peat bogs and fens are extremely precious, yet the most endangered habitats both in Poland as in the wole Europe, including alkaline, calcareous fens described in the this article. Because of various human actions like meliorations, drainage wetlands for pastures, and additionally, far reaching climatic changes, such areas may shortly vanish from the surface of the earth. The proposed „Ciesacin” nature reserve, known from many publications as „Ciesacin” Fen, located near Garbatówka and Grabniak, in Cyców community, 璚zna County, Lublin Voivodeship, deserves special attention to flora and fauna (vertebrates and invertebrates). Whereas, vegetation of this area has ben described in details, the fauna, especially invertebrates, has not been paid enough attention so far.
Since 2020, there has been odonata research which resulted in the confirmation of the presence of such protected species as the Scarce Large Blue (Phengaris teleius) and the Large Copper (Lycaena dispar), as well as the discovery of a stable population of the Marsh Fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia), the endangered species. In 2021 and 2022, imagines in mating flight and courtship were observed. Observations took place in the high season, butterflies were present in huge numbers, feeding on nectar-producing plants: Dactylorhiza majalis, Ranunculus Cirsium sp. and Carduus sp. Accessibility of the food plant for larvae - Succisa pratensis, is enough for the butterflies to finish the whole life cycle. Currently, the most important issue is a conservation of those wetlands against drying out and stopping the succession of trees and shrubs by cutting the meadows down in the adequate period of the year. Introducing the protection of „Ciesacin” Fen in the form of nature reserve, will definitely contribute to preservation of valuable habitats for many plant and animal species.


The association Sphagno capillifolii-Empetretum nigri in the Tatra National Park –
between crowberry thickets and bogs


Sphagnum-Polytrichum hummocks are formed by Sphagnum spp., Polytrichum strictum, accompanied by dwarf shrubs: Vaccinium spp., Empetrum hermaphroditum and herbaceous plants representing siliceous alpine swards. They were a subject of bryological research in the Tatra National Park, but there were no phytosociological studies on them. In 2022 patches of Sphagnum-Polytrichum hummocks in the TNP were mapped and documented by a set of 24 relevés (Table 1). These patches have been classified to the Sphagno capillifolii-Empetretum nigri B骴ohlávková 2006 association and the Sphagno capillifolii-Empetretum nigri luzuletosum alpinopilosae B骴ohlávková 2006 subassociation. This syntaxon consists of moss species characteristic for peat bogs and vascular plants characteristic for crowberry thickets. Sphagno capillifolii-Empetretum nigri develops mainly in the subalpine and alpine belts, less often in the upper montane zone.



Mosses and liverworts of the Ga趾ów nature reserve (Central Poland)


In 2020 bryological research was carried out in the "Ga趾ów" nature reserve (ód Voivodeship, Brzeziny Forest District). It is one of the smallest reserve in this region. In studied area deciduous forests (mainly Luzulo pilosae-Fagetum and Galio odorati-Fagetum) predominate. As a result, 5 liverwort species and 43 species and one variety of moss were found. The analysis of ecological groups showed that epixylic and epiphytic bryophytes were the most numerous. Seven protected and endangered species were found in the “Ga趾ów” reserve. Among the most important records can be mentioned: Dicranoweisia cirrata, Orthodicranum tauricum, Orthotrichum striatum, Ulota crispa and U. bruchii.